The COVAX Maternal Immunization Working Group (MIWG): co-chaired by Drs. Flor M. Munoz (Baylor College of Medicine, USA) and Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USA) includes a group of professionals with expertise in various aspects pertinent to maternal immunization, who represent diverse organizations, geographies, and settings. The aim of the MIWG is to enable the evaluation and utilization of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in pregnant and lactating women.

Co-Leads: Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen (BMGF), Flor Muñoz (Baylor College of Medicine) | List of members


COVAX > Clinical Development and Operation > Maternal Immunization > Publications


COVID-19 and pregnancy - risks to mothers and infants when developing COVID-19 while pregnant or lactating

COVID-19–Associated Deaths After SARS-CoV-2 Infection During Pregnancy — Mississippi, March 1, 2020–October 6, 2021; CDC Mortality and Morbidity Report | Laurin Kasehagen et al. | 19 Nov 2021

Risk for Stillbirth Among Women With and Without COVID-19 at Delivery Hospitalization — United States, March 2020–September 2021; CDC Mortality and Morbidity Report | Carla L. DeSisto et al. | 19 Nov 2021

COVID-19 Severity among Women of Reproductive Age with Symptomatic Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by Pregnancy Status – United States, Jan 1, 2020 – Sep 30, 2021  |  Penelope Strid et al. | 18 Nov 2021

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes Associated With the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta (B.1.617.2) Variant | Angela R. Seasely | 22 Oct 2021

Prevalence of Maternal Mortality and Clinical Course of Maternal Deaths in COVID‑19 Pneumonia‑A Cross‑Sectional Study | Mahesh Asalkar et al. | 06 Oct 2021

Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and other severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Brazil from January to November 2020Lisiane F. Leal | Sep 2021 

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 variant on the severity of maternal infection and perinatal outcomes: Data from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System national cohort. | Nicola Vousden et al. | 25 Jul 2021

COVID-19 poses alarming pregnancy and postpartum mortality risk in Brazil | Susie Gurzenda et al. | 30 May 2021

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth in England: national cohort study | Ipek Gurol-Urganci | 14 May 2021

Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19 Infection - The INTERCOVID Multinational Cohort Study | José Villar et al. | 22 Apr 2021

COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Their Newborn Infants | C. Mary Healy | 22 Apr 2021

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis  | Barbara Chmielewska  | 31 Mar 2021

Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis | John Allotey et al. | 2 Feb 2021

COVID-19 vaccines and pregnancy - data from pregnancies or lactation period in vaccinated women

Global Disparities in Public Health Guidance for the use of COVID-19 Vaccines in Pregnancy | Eleonor Zavala et al. | Oct 2021 

Receipt of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion | Lauren H. Zauche et al. | 8 Sep 2021

Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy | Noa Dagan et al. | 07 Sep 2021

Alignment of national COVID-19 vaccine recommendations for pregnant and lactating women | Michelle L Giles et al. | 30 Aug 2021

Short-term Reactions Among Pregnant and Lactating Individuals in the First Wave of the COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout | Alisa Kachikis et al. | 17 Aug 2021

Safety of components and platforms of COVID-19 vaccines considered for use in pregnancy: A rapid review | Agustín Ciapponi et al. | 13 Aug 2021

Association Between BNT162b2 Vaccination and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnant Women | Inbal Goldshtein et al. | 12 Jul 2021

Evaluation of Messenger RNA From COVID-19 BTN162b2 and mRNA-1273 Vaccines in Human Milk | Ahituv Golan et al. | 6 Jul 2021 

COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women During Pregnancy — Eight Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 14, 2020–May 8, 2021 | Hilda Razzaghi et al. | 18 Jun 2021

mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines in Pregnant Women | Laura E. Riley | 17 Jun 2021

EBCOG position statement on COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women | Inês Martins et al. | 14 May 2021

Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons  | Tom T. Shimabukuro et al.  |  21 Apr 2021

Other tools and Guidance 

COVID-19 Vaccination Considerations for Obstetric–Gynecologic Care - American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

Covid-19 Maternal Immunization Tracker (COMIT)